Chapter 19 Summary

Countryside and Town, 1949-1950: 
‘The rest of the people would enjoy the full range of freedoms, while China developed its potential through the twin politics of socialization of agricultural and a powerful industry having state enterprise as its backbone.’ After the establishment of the People’s Republic, Mao ran lots of campaigns between countryside and town. His first plan is to lead to build up agricultural production, restore the dismantled heavy industries and maintain law and order. So, he planed to reform the rural area by cleaning all the landlords and ‘equally’ gave the land to peasants. Then he persuaded to educated technical and managerial elites to serve the new state. Also, with the equilibrium of male and female, Mao started to let women benefit from the land reform. In the city, Mao planned to stop violent social confrontations and to encourage industries to reopen and workers to stay at their jobs. However, with the shortage of cadres, Mao had to use the peasant with little experience of city life.

The Structure of the New Government
The new government was designed around a framework that nominally divided power among three central components: Communist party, the formal governmental structure, and the army. in 1949, the party was lead by Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, and Chen Yun. The formal government and CCP linked the entire country.

The Korean War
With Mao’s idea of leaning to one side, Mao visited Stalin, and Stalin promised to evacuate Lvshun and Dalian and Mao had to abandon Mongolia. Also, Mao sent troops to Fujian to protect the border against Taiwan where Chiang was. However, American ships stayed in the Taiwan coast, Chinese army could not take Taiwan back. In 1950, because the North Korea army moved across the 38 border, the Korean war started. At first, the North Korea took most of the place of South Korea, but with American Army involving, the North Korean Army was surrounded by American Army. At this time, because of the American booming in Dandong China, and also the pressure of the Soviet Union, Chinese Army went to Korea to help North Korea. Finally, in 1953, the North and the South Korea signed the Korean Armistice Agreement settled that the 38N will be the border of North and South Korea.

Mass Party, Mass Campaigns
In the summer of 1951, the CCP leadership launched a series of mass rallies in large cities to publicize the new campaign against domestic subversion, and held exhibitions to brand the counterrevolutionaries’ activities. As the campaign grew in intensity it became brutal and terrifying. For millions of Chinese, the violence and humiliation of these days effectively ended any hope that they would be able to live out their lives peacefully under the Communist regime, whatever their past histories might have been. The main purpose of the campaign was to assert government control over workers’ organizations, and to end the independent modes of operation capitalists and bureaucratic functionaries.

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